Some notable dates in the far future
Compiled below is a selection of estimated dates for some events given certain assumptions in the evolution of Earth, the Solar System, and the Universe. Most events are of an astronomical and cosmological nature though some are geological. A more complete list from which the ones included here were taken can be found on Wikipedia.
- In 10,000 years - The end of humanity, according to Brandon Carter’s Doomsday argument, which assumes that half of the humans who will ever have lived have already been born.
- In 50,000 years - Niagara Falls erodes away the remaining 20 miles to Lake Erie and ceases to exist.
- In 500,000 years - By this time Earth will have likely been impacted by a meteorite of roughly 1 km in diameter.
- In 1 million years - Highest estimated time until the red supergiant star Betelgeuse explodes in a supernova. The explosion is expected to be easily visible in daylight.
- In 50 million years - The Californian coast begins to be subducted into the Aleutian Trench
Africa will have collided with Eurasia, closing the Mediterranean Basin and creating a mountain range similar to the Himalayas.
- In ~240 million years - From its present position, the Solar System will have completed one full orbit of the Galactic center.
- In 250 million years - All the continents on Earth fuse into a possible new supercontinent.
- In 1 billion years - The Sun’s luminosity increases by 10%, causing Earth’s surface temperatures to reach an average of 47°C and the oceans to boil away.
- In 1.5 billion years - The Sun’s circumstellar habitable zone moves outwards as its increased luminosity causes carbon dioxide to increase in Mars’s atmosphere, raising its surface temperature to levels akin to Earth during the ice age.
- In 5.4 billion years - The Sun becomes a red giant.Mercury, Venus and possibly Earth are destroyed.
- In 7 billion years - Collision between the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies.
- In 14.4 billion years - Sun becomes a black dwarf as its luminosity falls below three trillionths its current level, while its temperature falls to 2239 K, making it invisible to human eyes.
- In 20 billion years - The end of the Universe in the Big Rip scenario. Observations of galaxy cluster speeds by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory suggest that this will not occur.
- In 100 billion years - The Universe’s expansion causes all evidence of the Big Bang to disappear beyond the practical observational limit, rendering cosmology impossible.
- In 1012 (1 trillion) years - Low estimate for the time until star formation ends in galaxies as galaxies are depleted of the gas clouds they need to form stars.,
- In 2×1012 (2 trillion) years - All galaxies outside the Local Supercluster are no longer detectable in any way, assuming that dark energy continues to make the Universe expand at an accelerating rate.
- In 1015 (1 quadrillion) years - Estimated time until stellar close encounters detach all planets in the Solar System from their orbits.
By this time, the Sun will have cooled to five degrees above absolute zero.
- In 3×1043 years - Estimated time for all nucleons in the observable Universe to decay, if the proton half-life takes the largest possible value, 1041 years, assuming that the Big Bang was inflationary and that the same process that made baryons predominate over anti-baryons in the early Universe makes protons decay. By this time, if protons do decay, the Black Hole Era, in which black holes are the only remaining celestial objects, begins.
- In 1065 years - Assuming that protons do not decay, estimated time for rigid objects like rocks to rearrange their atoms and molecules via quantum tunneling. On this timescale all matter is liquid.
- In 1.7×10106 years - Estimated time until a supermassive black hole with a mass of 20 trillion solar masses decays by the Hawking process. This marks the end of the Black Hole Era. Beyond this time, if protons do decay, the Universe enters the Dark Era, in which all physical objects have decayed to subatomic particles, gradually winding down to their final energy state.
- In years - Estimated time for a Boltzmann brain to appear in the vacuum via a spontaneous entropy decrease.
- In years - Estimated time for random quantum fluctuations to generate a new Big Bang, according to Caroll and Chen.
- In years - Scale of an estimated Poincaré recurrence time for the quantum state of a hypothetical box containing an isolated black hole of stellar mass. This time assumes a statistical model subject to Poincaré recurrence. A much simplified way of thinking about this time is that in a model in which history repeats itself arbitrarily many times due to properties of statistical mechanics, this is the time scale when it will first be somewhat similar (for a reasonable choice of “similar”) to its current state again.
10:54 am • 21 June 2014 • 670 notes
Bloom - medley by Pogo
All the best parts about Disney music in one beautiful song. And it’s in A-flat, a.k.a. the best key ever and it has Aurora’s beautiful opera thing. c:
6:09 pm • 17 May 2014 • 23,694 notes
more inking class homework, with digital tones
5:18 pm • 17 May 2014 • 34,329 notes
Stunning photos of tears under a microscope vary by emotion
"The project, called "The Topography of Tears," captures unique moments in human experience, but there’s also a scientific reason why every tear looks so different. There are three different types of tears: basal (lubricating), reflex (responding to stimuli) and psychic (triggered by emotion). Each type of tear contains different organic substances, and the molecular makeup depends on the causative agent. For instance, emotional tears contain the neurotransmitter leucine enkephalin, a natural painkiller that the body releases to mitigate stress."
(Source: micdotcom, via megisalivedammit)
4:24 pm • 17 May 2014 • 136,929 notes
La cocaina no es buena para su salud,
La cocaina is not good for you
6:48 pm • 24 April 2014 • 820 notes
horoscopes for the new moon
aries: get off the bathroom floor
taurus: you’re nauseating your lover
gemini: bury yourself and grow again
cancer: the sky is calling you
leo: be careful on train tracks
virgo: you’re deluded and dramatic
libra: start wearing rosaries for protection
scorpio: your sadistic tendencies won’t stop
sagittarius: quit bleeding all the time
capricorn: visit your grave
aquarius: they’re coming for you
pisces: i’m sorry but there is nothing
5:11 am • 10 April 2014 • 6,358 notes
jackskellingtonn said: i want your skin
i’ll cut it off and send it to you only if you promise to make me into a suit, buffalo-bill style
4:55 am • 10 April 2014 • 20 notes
Paul G S Lewis » Sunset over Monument Valley
9:02 am • 3 April 2014 • 115 notes
Photographs by Thom Sheridan
In 1986, the United Way attempted to break the world record for balloon launches, by releasing 1.5 million balloons, which resulted in two deaths, millions in lawsuits, and a devastating environmental impact.
5:06 pm • 16 March 2014 • 393,593 notes
“This actually did happen to a real person, and the real person was me. I had gone to catch a train. This was April 1976, in Cambridge, U.K. I was a bit early for the train. I’d gotten the time of the train wrong.
I went to get myself a newspaper to do the crossword, and a cup of coffee and a packet of cookies. I went and sat at a table.
I want you to picture the scene. It’s very important that you get this very clear in your mind.
Here’s the table, newspaper, cup of coffee, packet of cookies. There’s a guy sitting opposite me, perfectly ordinary-looking guy wearing a business suit, carrying a briefcase.
It didn’t look like he was going to do anything weird. What he did was this: he suddenly leaned across, picked up the packet of cookies, tore it open, took one out, and ate it.
Now this, I have to say, is the sort of thing the British are very bad at dealing with. There’s nothing in our background, upbringing, or education that teaches you how to deal with someone who in broad daylight has just stolen your cookies.
You know what would happen if this had been South Central Los Angeles. There would have very quickly been gunfire, helicopters coming in, CNN, you know… But in the end, I did what any red-blooded Englishman would do: I ignored it. And I stared at the newspaper, took a sip of coffee, tried to do a clue in the newspaper, couldn’t do anything, and thought, what am I going to do?
In the end I thought, nothing for it, I’ll just have to go for it, and I tried very hard not to notice the fact that the packet was already mysteriously opened. I took out a cookie for myself. I thought, that settled him. But it hadn’t because a moment or two later he did it again. He took another cookie.
Having not mentioned it the first time, it was somehow even harder to raise the subject the second time around. “Excuse me, I couldn’t help but notice …” I mean, it doesn’t really work.
We went through the whole packet like this. When I say the whole packet, I mean there were only about eight cookies, but it felt like a lifetime. He took one, I took one, he took one, I took one. Finally, when we got to the end, he stood up and walked away.
Well, we exchanged meaningful looks, then he walked away, and I breathed a sigh of relief and sat back. A moment or two later the train was coming in, so I tossed back the rest of my coffee, stood up, picked up the newspaper, and underneath the newspaper were my cookies.
The thing I like particularly about this story is the sensation that somewhere in England there has been wandering around for the last quarter-century a perfectly ordinary guy who’s had the same exact story, only he doesn’t have the punch line.”
Douglas Adams (via revolverwife)
I think about this story a LOT. A LOT.
(Source: sexhaver, via burningbra)
4:57 am • 12 March 2014 • 41,982 notes
"I got some purple ones because my yellow ones weren’t feeling too good."
7:07 pm • 11 March 2014 • 11,238 notes
A random ball pit is set up in the middle of a city
And this is what happens as people approach it.
6:29 pm • 11 March 2014 • 70,263 notes